Acne

WhatIs ?

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WhatCauses ?

Clinical Presentations Of

Complication Of

Treatment Options For

Prevention Of

What Is Acne?

Acne is a common inflammatory skin condition. While all age groups can be affected but it mostly prevalent among adolescence. It can significantly affect psychosocial and mental well beings of individuals. Depression and suicidal thought process is common among patients with acne disorder. There are several acne treatment available to resolve acne scar formation. You can obtain a consult by one of our board certified dermatologist to address your acne right away.

 

Acne affects 85% of individuals age between 12-24 years. Caucasian boys and men tend to have more severe acne issues. Patients with XYY karyotype or endocrine disorders such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), hyperandrogenism, hypercortisolism and precocious puberty are at much higher risk of developing severe acne disorder.

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What Causes Acne?

Acne formation is due to overproduction of sebum around hair follicle which results in occlusion of hair follicle opening. Additionally, overgrowth of bacteria P. acne causes further inflammation at the hair follicle opening which results in formation of acne.

 

Genetics predisposition plays a considerable role in acne disorder. Individuals with multiple family members having history of acne are at higher risk of developing severe nodulocystic acne.

Clinical Presentations Of Acne

Acne can present as comedones (white and black heads), papules (pimples), pustules, nodules, and cysts

 

Post-adolescent acne: more common in female patients in their 20s, present pre-menstruation as papulonodules on lower third of face, jawline and neck
Acne fulminans (moderate to severe acne). It can also affect male patients, 13-16 years old. It presents as abrupt eruption of nodular acne which often affects face, neck, chest, back, and arms

 

Acne mechanica (Maskne): repeated mechanical and frictional obstruction results in comedone formation. We have seen significant increase in maskne due to frequent use of masks. The obstruction of hair follicles as well as the inflammation due to constant trauma to skin due to friction has substantially increased acne eruptions among adult patients.

Complication Of Acne
  • Scar formation: ice pick scars, box car scars, pitted and hypertrophic scars (due to nodulocystic acne), dyspigmentation, erythema
  • Acne and acne scar can cause significant psychosocial effects on the patient
Treatment Options for Acne
  • Over the counter medications:
    • Exfoliating agents containing retinoids, glycolic acid, salicylic acid
  • Prescription medications:
    • Topical Medications
      • Tazarotene (Tazorac 0.05% & 0.1% Cream/gel)
      • Adapalene (Differin) Cream/gel 0.1%
      • Tretinoin (Retin-A/Retin-A micro cream & gel 0.025%, 0.05% & 0.1%)
      • Benzyl peroxide in combination of clindamycin (BenzaClin)
      • Azelaic acid (Finacea)
      • Salicylic acid
      • Sodium sulfacetamide
      • Dapsone
    • Systemic therapy
      • Oral antibiotics
        • Doxycycline, Minocycline, Tetracycline
        • Erythromycin
      • Spironolactone
      • Oral contraceptive pills
      • Accutane
Prevention Of Acne
  • Avoid high consumption of milk (especially skim milk) and high glycemic index diets
  • Assuring that makeup and other topical OTC products are labelled as being non-comedogenics
  • Early treatment of acne to prevent formation of acne scar
  • Avoiding “popping the pimple” or scratching the acne to prevent scar formation

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What is?
Acne is a common inflammatory skin condition affecting folliculosebaceous unit. It affects mostly face, upper back and chest as well as scalp area 85% of patients are teenager, age between 12-24 years. Young male Caucasians are at higher risk of nodulocystic acne.